Above - 50 Parliament Street now (behind the sign). Norman Shaw North is the red brick building centre right. Below - The bridge between the Norman Shaw buildings (North on the right) showing the rear windows of 50 Parliament Street through the arch.
There is a letter written by Bond in the British Medical Journal under the title of 'The Whitechapel Tragedy' on 11th December 1875. It is a report on the post mortem of the victim in the Wainwright case, in which Henry Wainwright was caught transporting a dismembered corpse in London. Bond was living at 50 Parliament St., so it is a letter written about a 'Whitechapel Tragedy', which is a dismemberment murder in which Bond experiments on the victim's uterus, from a house within 50 yards of the eventual 1888 torso deposition spot.
On 21st December 1883 a drowned man was found near Vauxhall Bridge. A newspaper report from 4th January 1884 has Bond commenting thus; 'he was a fine muscular man about 35. His face was particularly handsome' and that 'he had never seen a finer body, there being no hint of disease'. It strikes me as a tad inappropriate to talk about a corpse that way, but maybe that's just me (he would have been 'mourning' the loss of his cousin at the time).
The dead man's possessions were listed as 'a gold curb pattern chain, a silver Geneva watch, a silver horse-shoe pin, four silver studs, £1 in gold and 13 shillings in silver'. His clothes were of fine quality, his shirt made in Bradford. A man allegedly seen with Mary Kelly on the night she died wore a horse-shoe pin and eye-catching watch chain. Rose Mylett, possibly the next victim, died on 20th December 1888.
Many, if not all serial killers are necrophiles. They may not carry out sexual acts on the corpse, but they are drawn to death and want a dead person possibly because they then have complete control over their victim, who cannot complain, ridicule or resist. The more time they can get with a corpse the better they like it and the more likely they are to touch, talk to, have sexual contact with or mutilate. In a current case, police investigating 2 historical murders found a DNA link to a man and on searching his home found images of him sexually abusing bodies in mortuaries at hospitals where he worked. It's possible a number of people are alive today because this man found a safer outlet for his perversity. Although not a killer, Jimmy Savile, a famous radio and TV personality in the UK, abused corpses after being given a key to a morgue.
It's possible that Bond's words above are expressing his attraction to death itself, rather than to a 'handsome' man. If so, it's possible he took momentos in order to reconnect to this time and perhaps wore them himself.
In 1880 Bond was called for after an attempted suicide from Waterloo Bridge. The man was identified by friends as Mr. James Hart. When the police found him his hands were tied together. One of the letters has a drawing of a heart, described as a 'hart'.
Bond was based at King Street police station, Westminster. In 1893 a 16 year-old boy shot himself in an office in King Street. One of the items found on the deceased was a letter from an Editorial Department in Fleet Street stating that one could buy a gun at a gunmaker's or pawnbroker's.
In 1895 retired Surgeon-Major Francis Parsons, an old friend of Bond's, shot himself through the heart. He had caught malaria in India, had a history of depression and was convinced he had 'committed all sorts of evil'.
His family was unaware that he owned the revolver used and although he was depressed, suicide was surprising to them and his usual doctor. Bond had advised him to take a holiday so he went to Bournemouth but died shortly after he returned to Surrey. Bond had told Parsons he should have been in a mental hospital and told the Inquiry Parsons was in a bad way and he wished he'd had him committed. He felt that death was a happy release for the deceased.
The County Express reported on a claim for damages against the Great Western Railway on 16th August 1884 at the Birmingham Assizes. Daniel Casson, aged 66, had been injured in a railway carriage when the train was involved in a minor collision. He was thrown across the compartment and banged his head and then on leaving the train, fell on the platform due to the pain he was in. Doctors Higgs, Rickards and Orwin agreed that among other injuries he had received a severe shock to the system and an injury to the chest which had resulted in a cancerous growth. Casson told how he was visited by Bond after the accident and that Bond didn't examine him but after looking at him for a while had offered him £5 and said, 'You had better take this or you will not get anything. What I say is law'. Another representative of the company tried the same thing and produced a receipt for Casson to sign, effectively pressuring him to settle out of court for £5. ' A more unworthy, ignoble or disgraceful act on behalf of the company, I have never heard' said Mr. Hill, his lawyer. The judge thought Casson must have misunderstood Bond. The Company offered him £600 (52k today) which he accepted. It's understood that companies try to save money by buying people off, and that he was testing to ensure Casson's claim was genuine but if Bond said what was alleged I think it would display quite a disturbing attitude, 'what I say is law' is untrue, threatening and coercive.
Casson lived at Brierley Hill. There was a letter sent to Charles Warren from there on 19th October 1888.
In December 1892 Bond was giving an opinion about some bones at the trial of Andrew Mcrae. He said that if they 'weren't from the hand of a human, they must have belonged to a large ape'. No doubt human bones were occasionally found in excavations. He had even seen them in a manure heap. 'They might get anywhere'. On 26th May 1880 a hand had been found in a bargeload of manure from London on Foulness Island, Southend. Bond thought it belonged to a dissected body and there was no sign of injury or suspicion.
What Bond says here is perfectly true and may reflect a rather world-weary attitude to the things he has seen throughout his life, but it seems as though he's being a bit frivolous.
The Western Mail reported an 'amusing' story on 23rd May 1892 told by Bond at a meeting of the Surgical Appliances Society. He said a countrywoman who had been supplied with an artificial nose of the retrousse sort by the Society, had so improved her appearance that she had received more than one proposal of marriage. This could feasibly be a veiled allusion to Kate Eddowes facial injuries.
It's most likely that Annie Chapman was killed around 5.30am. on September 8th 1888. Today(8th April) is very closely equivalent in terms of daylight hours to that date, allowing for the adjustment for British Summer Time. Today started cloudy and although not quite pitch black was very dark until 5 am. after which it lightened up and by 5.30 it was daylight but dull with most cars being driven with headlights on. Philip Sugden writes of a 'grey dawn'. It's possible it was timed to allow for light to work by.
8th Sept. clear sky 5am visibility fair, 5.30 daylight visibility very good.
9th Sept. overcast 5am visibility fair but dull, 5.30 visibility very good.
The writing on the wall in Goulston Street was small with capitals threequarters of an inch tall, and is said to have been written in chalk. You would need a fairly sharp point to write it. 'The Star' describes the 'Saucy Jacky' postcard as being 'written in chalk', but the facsimile we see appears to be done with a colouring pencil. It makes sense to me that the graffiti was written with a colouring pencil, which implies that it forms a set with the card. (On 1st October somebody sent a copy of the Liverpool Daily Post to 29 Hanbury Street, 'with the letter and postcard marked in blue pencil'). It follows that if it is from the killer, then the 'Dear Boss' letter must be also. It contains the line 'they say I'm a doctor now ha ha'.
On being awarded his degree Bond's title would have been 'doctor' until he was admitted 'Fellow'. The proper way to address him is then 'mister'. Bond was a Surgeon, an Assistant Surgeon, a Consulting Surgeon, a Bachelor, a Fellow, a Lecturer, a Licentiate, a Medical Officer, an Analyst, a Director, a Professor of Obstetrics and a Shareholder, but not a doctor, although he was often called one.
If 'Dear Boss' is what it claims to be, it seems logical that the Moab and Midian letter is also genuine. In it the author claims he had nothing to do with the Whitehall victim and mentions God. Why would anyone believe Jack ? It's more likely the opposite is the truth.
Considering Bond lived at Westminster Abbey and was active within the church, the religious tone might fit his personality. A man seen with Liz Stride was heard to say to her, 'you would say anything but your prayers', which again would tie in with both the Lock Hospital's and the workhouse's mission, in that they were trying to promote a religious attitude to life. Prayers were compulsory at bedtime in the Petty France workhouse.
Abraham Bond married Mary Beviss on 11th December 1800. Their son was Abraham Beviss Bond. His son was Abraham Bond. His son was Abraham Bertram Bond. Mary Beviss's nephew, was Abraham Beviss, who had a son called Abraham.
Abraham, originally Avram or Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
In Judaism he is the founding father of the covenant, the special relationship between the Jews and God. In Christianity, he is the prototype of all believers, Jewish or Gentile.
Bond grew up around a dynasty of Abrahams. Are they 'the Juwes' that will not be blamed ?
The strange wording of the graffiti has led to speculation that it might be an anagram. The best I could come up with is 'tonight will be the tenth bad woman, then for jerusalem'. There is a spare letter e. Charles Warren was nicknamed Jerusalem. Another possibility is that Bond has given his name hidden within the message, almost literally leaving his signature.
The Double Event
Bond was described as a 'fine athlete'.
On one occasion he talks about diet, saying that the 'jam butty' diet leads to physical degeneration and eventual death. He promotes a diet of meat and milk because it provides nitrogen.
'Positive nitrogen balance' was the desired state of bodybuilders in the 1970s for promoting muscle growth. Bond may well have been a rower in his student years and rode horses all his life, so he would naturally have developed strength. On 25th July 1889 he attended an exhibition of strength by a man described as the 'modern Samson'. He is quoted as saying he'd only seen one other man like him. Presumably, the other man is Eugen Sandow, who is known as the 'father of modern bodybuilding'. It's possible Bond trained with weights and if so he would quite likely have added bulk in the chest and shoulders. It would have created an appearance of athleticism as does today's fitness fad, which is based on vanity, narcissism.
Israel Schwartz described a broad shouldered man attacking Elizabeth Stride at the gateway where she died in Berner Street. She cries out but not very loudly which might imply that he has her scarf tight around her throat or perhaps that she didn't feel she was in any great danger. Schwartz runs away after the man apparently alerts an accomplice, who appears to follow him. A newspaper report has it that Schwartz followed the tipsy-looking attacker along Berner Street. If that is true he appears to be on his own when he approaches Liz. I think if there was an accomplice he would have made sure Schwartz didn't get away. They were walking south along Berner Street so as Schwartz passes the gateway is on his right and he had to pass both men. He is supposed to have ran towards the railway arches in Pinchin Street so he had to turn right at the bottom of Berner Street into Ellen Street then travel around 100m before turning left into Philip Street before the arches were in view. (The torso was found in an arch not far from the bottom of Philip Street in 1889). Schwartz was said to have lived in Ellen Street or Berner Street and a reporter tracked him down in Back Church Lane so he appears to have no reason to go as far as Pinchin Street other than the fear of being followed.
Stride had to be killed because otherwise she would have been able to identify her attacker, but he had no time to go any further as Schwartz was likely to alert the police. So he pulls her inside the yard, cuts her throat in a rush, botching it, and leaves. Because Schwartz has gone south it makes sense for the attacker to go north. Kate Eddowes encounters him as he perhaps makes his way towards the hotel or Liverpool Street Station or Finsbury Circus, and he completes his mission in Mitre Square. If he disposed of evidence at one of those places and made sure he was clean and tidy he could return to Goulston Street to leave his clue without attracting attention.
Liz Stride claimed to have lost her husband and two children in the sinking of the Princess Alice on the Thames in 1878. It turned out she was married in 1872/73 but her husband died in Poplar in 1884. As acting Medical Officer, Bond examined the victims of the tragedy and certificated the closing of the shells (makeshift coffins?) so if she was connected at all with the Alice it's possible he was acquainted with Liz. It was said at the inquest that both she and her husband had worked on the SS Great Eastern, but it's almost certainly untrue.
The Chief Constable of Great Yarmouth received a letter signed 'Jack the Ripper' and dated 29/10/88 shortly before Mary Kelly's murder. The sender's address was written as 14 Dorset Street, Spitalfields. Bond's second wife was from Norwich which is about 22 miles from Yarmouth,(both are in the county of Norfolk). Her brother, Lancelot Dashwood, passed his entrance exam to the Law Society Hall in 1863. The Law Society is almost on the corner of Carey Street where Bond worked in 1866. Lancelot died in a shooting accident on the Norfolk Broads in 1868. Bond knew his wife Louisa 'from his younger days' (Plarr's), so it's possible he was friends with her brother and had visited them both in Norfolk before he met Rosa Hayes. Bond was surgeon to the Great Eastern Railway and if you were heading to Yarmouth you would leave London from Liverpool Street, GER's main terminus, a few hundred yards from Dorset Street. He visited Norwich on behalf of GER in 1883.
Bond's fellow director at the Chlor-Alum Company, George Brocklebank, was a director of the General Steam Navigation Company, which ran ships to Yarmouth.
Sir Charles Warren
I understand that Bond's position with the police changed and Bond was not happy with Warren in the early part of 1888. Could the 'Dear Boss' have been Warren ? Could the author of the Moab and Midian letter have been trying to draw attention to the time when Sir Charles was suspected of smashing the Moabite Stone, in an attempt to embarrass him ? The placement of the torso in the future CID headquarters could also be targetted at Warren.
A letter from Paddington (20/11/88) refers to 'sir Charlie, dear Charlie'. Charles Hayes wrote of 'my dear brother Bond'.
The Golden State Killer, Joe DeAngelo, was sacked from his police officer job for stealing a hammer and afterwards stalked and threatened to kill the Chief of Police.
Anatomical knowledge and skill
There were many 'doctors' giving opinions about the educational level of the man/men involved in the torsos and Whitechapel cases. Dr Galloway said of the 1887 Rainham torso that the dismemberer had a 'thorough knowledge of surgery', Bond on same 'a knowledge of anatomy'. On Elizabeth Jackson 'skill of a butcher or horse knacker' (Bond),'very considerable knowledge of anatomy' (Kempster) Hibberd on Whitehall 'knew what he was doing', 'severence of lower part of body was not done as an anatomist would do it'. Phillips on Chapman 'seemed to indicate great anatomical knowledge'. 'It must have been someone accustomed to the post-mortem room'(Baxter), Brown on Eddowes 'a great deal of knowledge', 'expertly removed'. Sequiera on same 'not possessed of any great anatomical skill'. Bond on Kelly (who he saw) and the others in the C5 (who he didn't) 'does not even possess the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer'. William Acton wrote about women being used 'like a horse and then sent to the knackers'.
Bond stated that Alice McKenzie's throat was 'skilfully and resolutely cut'. How is cutting someone's throat more skilful than removing a kidney or uterus in poor light ? Or Kate Eddowes's delicate eyework ?
Mary Kelly's murder looks like a frenzied blitz style of attack to many, but there is a methodical mind in evidence. The killer was able to subdue her with a minimum of resistance and execute her in seconds, he knew what to do, and was in control of himself.(The house was divided by a wooden floor so any noise would have been heard by the upstairs neighbour, it's possible she was laid in bed listening to the whole thing). I think he should be classed as an 'organised offender'. I believe all successful serial killers are the 'organised' type and the fact that 'Jack' was never caught indicates that he was the most organised of all. The way the pieces are placed and the heart removed shows a methodical, deliberate series of actions. It is logical that he is no stranger to the inside of a body and is acting in accordance with his previous experience. Bearing in mind Bond's job at the Lock Hospital, that he had a midwifery qualification and was a Professor of Obstetrics, look at the Kelly photo and how she is posed (Mary Fouracre died in childbirth). The Yarmouth letter implies that she was being stalked, which again points to an organised, calculating mind.
However, if Bond was 'Jack', the apparent matching of dates and names seems to indicate either a deeply superstitious man or one who has an obsessive compulsion to link the crimes verbally or chronologically, which would imply an element of mental illness or 'magical thinking'. Maybe it just added something to the thrill. He appears to work from his diaries.
Narcissism is accepted as a trait of psychopaths and the linking or deliberate leaving of obscure clues may be an expression of that.
If Bond was 'Jack', and chose to walk home from Dorset Street he could wash, have a quick drink and be tucked up in bed in an hour and a half. He estimated the time of death to be before 2am, though the evidence suggested it to be later with one witness even stating she spoke to Mary around 8am.
In Bond's 1876 essay, The Laws Of Health, he warns about garters worn below the knee restricting blood flow and causing ulcers. In Kelly's photo there is a line on her right calf that isn't mentioned in the post mortem notes. He also extols the virtues of an open fireplace for ventilation, 'especially if there is a fire burning' (it appears the killer burnt clothes in the fireplace in Kelly's room). He believes in the benefits of the Turkish bath, but finishes with this line, 'it promotes purity of mind and morals. The man who is accustomed to be physically clean shrinks instinctively from all contact with uncleanliness'. The Whitechapel murders showed no sign of sexual activity between the killer and the victims, which may imply an element of disgust at the women's perceived lack of personal hygeine and the threat of disease or contempt for their low moral standards, but it may be that there is no sexual element in the crimes whatsoever. Does he actually think a Turkish bath prevents the mind from becoming lustful ? Is there a sense of a Madonna/whore complex ? By uncleanliness does he mean sex ?
Rosa Bond's gravestone has this (very common) engraving, 'Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God'. The word 'purity' was used in relation to women who were 'good', chaste and faithful and displayed the correct moral tone at the time, a non-sexual image. Perhaps Mary Kelly's heart was removed because it was not 'pure'.
Charles Hayes wrote 'I will bless you', the author of Moab and Midian 'God will bless the hand that slew her'. The word 'Bless' was more commonly used than it is now because it was a more religious era but it may signify a familial verbal habit, a favourite word. Honour would be today's simplest equivalent.
The mind is the past. Thought is the past acting in the present. Jack The Ripper functioned
from memory. Consider Bond's memories, finger on a carotid artery (the power over life and death), spurting blood, rotting corpses, amputations, gralloching, hunting, beheading and Hepatoscopy, post-mortems, military surgery, rough women, VD and internal examinations, foxes torn apart, train related injuries. He was comfortable around all of it, desensitised, conditioned.
The psychological effects of a constant diet of horror and gore on a person's mind are unknowable to most people. It must be distressing at some level regardless of professionalism or attempts to remain objective. I don't think Bond would be the only one to display a corrupted mentality after witnessing horrific injuries and cutting into flesh at a post-mortem or in performing an operation is in itself an unusual thing to do and must create a world-view different to the average person. Perhaps he's more deserving of sympathy than we realise.
War veterans have spoken of unimaginable events having long-term consequences for their emotional state, giving them a violent hair-trigger temper. A number of mass killings have come from ex-military men with mental health issues, PTSD is often mentioned. To look at the 'Ripper' victims is to look into Thomas Bond's mind, his past.
Mitre Street now - Kate Eddowes was found roughly between the container and the traffic cones.
Other Murders ?
The dress that the Whitehall victim was wrapped in was made in Bradford. A 22 year old woman, Maria Coroner, was jailed for sending 'Ripper' letters in Bradford. A letter dated 14th November 1888 threatenened to kill a boy of 'about 7 years old'.
In early December 1888 a young boy called Thomas Bond was thanked by Queen Victoria for returning a handkerchief. On 29th December the remains of John Gill, an 8 year old boy, were found in Bradford. The milkman he was last seen with, Barrett, was charged with murder but the case was eventually dropped as the evidence was not strong enough.
On 27th December a man called Cahill had returned to his home at 10am, in a street close to where John was last seen with Barrett, at about 8.30am. The house had been entered, the furniture had been pulled about and some things were in a heap on the table in the living room. On another table he found two carving knives placed crosswise and upon them was a card which on one side read, 'Half past nine. Look out. Jack The Ripper has been'. On the other side was written, 'I have removed down to the canal-side. Please drop in, yours truly, SUICIDE'. There was a large tin of water on the table which had itself been soaked with water. The clock in the living room was stopped at half past nine, a bottle of rum had been stolen and another had been taken from the cupboard and some of it poured into glasses on the table which were left almost empty. The Cahills had to move because Mrs Cahill was afraid of being alone in the house (who could blame her ?). The police thought it was a hoax.
In the 1960s the Manson Family used to enter people's homes at night and rearrange the furniture, a process they called 'creepy-crawling'. A similar type of mentality seems to be at work here.
The letter sent to the Commercial Street police station dated 14th October 1896 mentions Warren and threatens 'to go on with my work'. On 11th February 1897 Elizabeth Camp was found in a railway carriage belonging to the London and South-Western Railway at Waterloo station. She had been battered to death. On searching the rail tracks the police found a bloodied pestle near to the Wandle river, 200 yards to the west of Wandsworth Town station. Miss Camp had been travelling back from her sister's place in Hounslow and the train had passed through (among other places) Brentford, Barnes, Putney, Wandsworth and Vauxhall. Eye witnesses spoke of potential suspects at Wandsworth and Vauxhall in particular. Bond's mother-in-law and sisters-in-law, Louisa and Alice were living in Ealing in 1891. Sophia had died in Ealing in 1894, but Louisa lived until 1899 and there is an Alice Hayes who died in the Brentford area in 1920. If Bond had visited her and Louisa it is feasible he could have caught a Hounslow to Waterloo train from Brentford.
Bond's medical career began in a train of the London and South-Western Railway. On 17th March 1897 a Dr. Bond attended the annual dinner of London and South-Western, at the Freemason's Tavern, socialising alongside a Mr. Hilditch, Station Superintendent at Waterloo Terminus. Bond worked for a number of railway companies so it's probably him. I wonder when he received the invitation and whether it moved him to troll in that area.
On 11th February 1864 a Thomas Bond had been awarded a clock by the West London Rowing Club for winning a 100 yard sprint. Their boathouse was at Wandsworth Bridge, a few hundred yards from where the pestle was found. This was reported on 13th February 1864, Frances Coles was killed 13th February 1891. If Bond left the train at Wandsworth, his house is a 90 minute walk away, or if he continued on to Waterloo about 10 minutes. In 1866 Bond was admitted Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries. He was appointed Medical Officer to the Carey Street dispensary and at Westminster, Consulting Surgeon to the Western Dispensary. Perhaps the pestle was used as a clue linking the murder to a pharmacist.
On 2nd April 1888 Malvina Haynes was attacked and left unconscious in the road near Leman Street railway station, which is within a few hundred yards of both the Swallow Gardens and Pinchin Street crime scenes. The head injuries and location might suggest a connection.
On 8th April 1890 Louisa Osborn, a 16 year old was found in the Grand Junction Canal at Notting Hill, London. A surgeon, David H. Daniell, thought that some of her injuries were caused before she died and that she died from shock because of them. Both her arms and several ribs were broken and her liver was ruptured. Bond thought these were caused by boats hitting her after she got into the water. He thought she had fainted and fallen into the canal. 'She had evidently lived a chaste life'.
It's not entirely clear whether or not this last comment is Bond's, but it seems pretty weird to me. Surely the point of examining her genitals is to determine if she was sexually assaulted ? Somebody seems to have thought her virginity might be relevant to the outcome. It appears to be uppermost in someone's mind, otherwise it's a strangely coy way of saying she wasn't raped, as though somebody can't see a difference in consensual and non-consensual sex. The word 'evidently' strikes me as giving it a somewhat grudging tone, as though the author doesn't quite believe it.
She was found roughly a mile from the Lock Hospital in Harrow Road, 2 miles from Paddington station.
I have no reason to think Bond killed her but considering his connection to the area and other coincidences involving names it's possible as Louisa was his sister-in-law's, his second wife's and his cousin's name.
He attended his cousin Louisa's wedding in London a few days before the death of Alice McKenzie and there is a letter threatening to 'kill my cousin'. Louisa died in 1894 at the age of 34. Some of the letters contain threats to kill children and if he was the Ripper he was capable of anything.
A letter written on 8th November 1888 mentioned Osborn Street, which is in Whitechapel and is connected to the 1888 murders.
In a letter dated 16th January 1889, the author wants to be known as Scarlet Runner (a type of bean). He claims to be 'preparing a draught, that will kill and leave no marks those I shall give it to will fall in various places, either being run over or die from its effect'.
On 19th August 1886, a Harriet Bond,(wife of a Thomas Bond), had died in St. James's Street, Taunton aged 43. I can't say if Bond knew or was related to these people but it's interesting that both his cousin and his cousin Thomas's wife were Harriets. Bond is buried alongside Harriet Bond.
St. James's Place was accessed by a passageway from Mitre Square.
Richard Kuklinski claimed to have killed using cyanide in a spray. A man of Bond's experience and knowledge would have been capable of something similar. In an 1876 court appearance Bond states that chloral, prussic acid (cyanide), strychnine, morphia and laudunum were found at the home of the defendant and were such as would be held legitimately by a medical man. The drugs were delivered to Bond's house by an Inspector Clark, thus presenting Bond with a clear opportunity to take possession of some or all of them. Death from chloral could not easily be distinguished from death by natural causes. A drachm of Prussic acid would certainly produce death. (An 1889 letter from Leith has drawings of a gun, a coffin, a bottle marked 'poison' and a dagger.) Maybe he became a morphine addict at this point.
In 1878 the annual hunt dinner of the Taunton Vale Foxhounds was held at the Castle Hotel, Taunton. A Mr. Scarlett, a well known sportsman who had been the Master of the Taunton Vale Harriers for about 40 years appears in a list next to Abraham Beviss Bond's sons Thomas(vice-chairman) and Abraham. St James's St. is a few hundred yards from the hotel. Scarlet jackets were (and still are) commonly worn among the hunting community.