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Torsos

Above- Battersea Bridge from Albert Bridge

In June 1874, the remains of an unnamed woman were found in the river at Putney. In March 1880 a boy was found in the Thames at Battersea, he had been beheaded by his mother, who had also drowned his baby sister.

If anywhere could be classed as 'Torso Central' it would be Chelsea Reach, the area between the Albert and Victoria (now Chelsea) Bridges. Chelsea Embankment is on the north side, Battersea Park on the south. Parts of bodies showed up there in 1873,1887 and 1889. Elizabeth Jackson, the 1889 victim was said to have slept in the park at one time. She was also seen by her mother in Queens Road (now Royal Hospital Road) shortly before her death. Queens Road runs north-east from Chelsea Embankment. An arm from the Whitehall victim was found about 150 yards to the east of Victoria Bridge in 1888. Pieces found in the park and in the garden of the Shelley house (north bank) indicate that the perpetrator had actually been present as opposed to the parts in the river which, it could be argued, drifted on the tide. Bond gave evidence in a case in October 1887 in which a baby was left to die in Battersea Park by her mother, and again in an infanticide case in December 1887 where the child was hidden in a cellar. Of the 25 discoveries mentioned by Trow in The Thames Torso Murders that were found along the Thames, 6 were along Chelsea Reach,12 in all between the Battersea and Westminster Bridges. There were 3 further parts including a random foot plus the 1874 body to the west of Battersea Bridge. A girl was found in the river at Nine Elms, Battersea on the same day as the first parts of the 1873 torso were found in almost the same spot. Part of the Rainham torso was found at Temple Pier (Victoria Embankment) on 5th June 1887, 100 yards from King's College, where Bond studied in the 1860s and about a mile from his home.

Elizabeth Jackson's body parts began showing up on 4th June 1889.

Lower part of abdomen at Horselydown, left leg and thigh off Battersea, upper part of body in Battersea Park, neck and shoulders off Battersea, liver near Nine-Elms, right foot and part of leg at Wandsworth, left leg and foot at Limehouse, buttocks and bony pelvis off Battersea, right thigh on Chelsea Embankment, left arm and hand at Bankside. Some of the remains were found in an undergarment with the name L.E. Fisher (Bond's eldest daughter was Lucy Elizabeth). The piece in the park was about 200 yards from the nearest gate.

Elizabeth is said to have 'constantly promenaded' and at one time slept in the park having found a way in after the gates were locked for the night. She was said to have been promenading near Battersea Bridge and the Albert Palace, to the rear of the park and had been sleeping on seats on Chelsea Embankment. The police dismissed the suggestion that she was the victim of an abortionist. Her sister Mary, had seen her in Brompton and she had been out all night. She was also seen in Queens Road.

In 1871 Bond's-in-laws lived between Brompton and West Brompton and at some time moved to Ealing. 

Above - Chelsea Reach, looking West from Chelsea Bridge.

In 1883 the Contagious Diseases Act was suspended. On 23rd October 1884 body parts were found a mile or so north of the river in the Tottenham Court Road area, at Alfred Mews, Bedford Square and outside 33 Fitzroy Square. These were all within 0.7 miles of the outpatients part of the London Lock Hospital and within 0.6 miles of the workhouse at Cleveland Street. Berners Street runs (roughly) north from Dean Street (the Lock Hospital outpatients is at No.91) to Cleveland Street. Dr Samuel Lloyd, divisional surgeon to E Division stated that 'the generative organs' had been removed by someone 'well acquainted with anatomical operations'. On September 25th pieces of another person had been found a little further north at Mornington Crescent.

In 1876 Bond was a director of the Chlor Alum Company. His fellow director George Brocklebank lived at 33 Bedford Square, so we can place Bond there with some certainty around that time. In  1871 Brocklebank lived at St.Katherines Dock, less than half a mile from Swallow Gardens, slightly more to Pinchin Street.

There was a skin hospital in Fitzroy Square, Bond was Surgeon to the skin department at Westminster.

In 1884 the Home Office offered a £200 reward for the capture of the killer of John Broome Tower. Bond had performed the post-mortem with a Dr. White and they both concluded he had been murdered. New information soon came to light and the police decided he had killed himself. Bond's evidence was severely criticised by 'several prominent members of the medical profession on account of the positive statements made by him as to the cause of death'.

Above- Albert Bridge from Battersea Park

Above- Chelsea Bridge from Battersea Park

Bond appears in news reports prior to the crimes that also mention 22 general or specific locations of deposition sites or crimes, including Rainham, Horselydown, Fitzroy Square, Mornington Crescent, Temple, Battersea Park and Guildford. Brady Street, Bethnal Green is also in one of the letters and is about 100 yards from the Nichols site in Bucks Row.

Two reports in 1878 also mention the London Hospital in Whitechapel Road.

Guildford

Guildford is a town roughly 30 miles to the southwest of London and what was thought to be part of a woman's right leg and foot, which had apparently been cooked, was discovered near the railway station, reportedly on 24th August 1888. It was speculated that it belonged to the Whitehall victim and so it was disinterred and brought back to London for doctors Bond and Hibberd to examine. The Whitehall torso had been found on October 2nd in a flowered skirt from a West End draper and wrapped with it was a newspaper dated 24th August. Bond and Hibberd stated that the leg was that of a bear. The wife of Bond's brother John had the maiden name (Annie) Bear.

Dear Boss

The Physic Garden on Chelsea Embankment is the second oldest botanical garden in Britain. The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries had rented the land from 1673 and after Sir Hans Sloane had bought it he leased it to them in perpetuity for £5 a year. Sloane's collections formed the basis of the British and Natural History Museums in London and he also spent 16 years as President of the Royal College of Physicians from 1719. The garden is about 100 yards to the west of Shelley House (western corner of Embankment Gardens, approximately where Dawliffe Hall is now) where part of Elizabeth Jackson was discovered in 1889, the main entrance being in Queens Road.

Bond was admitted Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries (LSA) in 1866, so he became a qualified pharmacist. Apothecaries Hall, where Bond sat his exams is about 150 yards from 5 New Bridge Street, which was, in 1888 the address of the Central News Agency. Bond's connection to both sites in his past may have carried an emotional significance for him.   

 

The Great Eastern Hotel

In 1885 Bond gave a speech at the 13th festival of the Provident Surgical Appliance Society at the Great Eastern Hotel in Liverpool Street. The 120 guests ate dinner under the presidency of Lord Hamilton M.P., vice-chairman of the Great Eastern Railway Company. Music was given by Madame Carrie Blackwell, Miss Coyte Turner and others, under the direction of Mr R. de Lacy (vicar choral of St. Pauls Cathedral) who himself sang Jude's song 'The Skipper'. The 'Ripper' letter from Taunton dated 4/10/88 says simply 'Jack The Skipper', Taunton was Bond's hometown. Why would anyone bother to send such an apparently meaningless message?

Bond was surgeon to the Great Eastern Railway and it's not unlikely meetings were held on a regular basis over a number of years at the hotel. Bishopsgate police station is about 100 yards away. All of the C5 plus the attacks on Smith, Tabram, Millwood, McKenzie and Coles happened within a mile of the hotel, Pinchin Street slightly more. Millers Court and Whites Row were the nearest, at about 500 yards away.

The Provident Surgical Appliance Society was based at Finsbury Circus, half a mile from Whites Row, to the west of the hotel. Perhaps he had a key to the building.

Liverpool Street Station was the main London terminus for Great Eastern. Trains ran to the Norfolk coast from there, including to Great Yarmouth. It was built on the site of the original Bethlem Hospital. What is now the Circle Line was operating in 1888 and ran through Paddington, Liverpool Street and Aldgate as it does today. Aldgate station is c200 yards from Mitre Square.

The first requirement in the suggestion of a potential suspect for any crime is that they have a demonstrable proximity to the area of said crime. In the case of Bedford Square and Norman Shaw North we can, with confidence, place Bond between 50 and 100 yards from both crime scenes in advance of those crimes. We know he was almost certainly passing Shelley House regularly in the 1870s and travelling along the embankment so again he is passing within yards of a number of crime scenes before the event. He knew those areas and had a connection to them.

Somebody once tried to 'geographically profile' where 'Jack' lived, I believe they drew lines on a map connecting the crime scenes in Whitechapel and decided he lived in Flower and Dean Street, pure guesswork, pseudo-science. To use 'geographic profiling' properly you must have a suspect otherwise it is totally meaningless. Once a suspect is in place you can test them against locations and timings. In the modern world, CCTV, DNA and phone records provide accurate information, making people's whereabouts much easier to pinpoint.

Eastney 8th July 1878

Bond was called on for his expert opinion when John Warrington was indicted for the murder of his wife at Eastney, Portsmouth. Eventually, it was decided that she had killed herself by cutting her own throat and Warrington was acquitted. One of the witnesses went to the Warrington house immediately after Mrs Warrington's throat was cut and was shown the knife used. He felt the blade of the knife and said to Warrington, 'you have a nice sharp edge here, Jack'.

All four doctors thought homicide was most likely, but there was an element of doubt. The other three doctors thought her throat was cut from left to right, but Bond says right to left. The wound had severed the windpipe, divided all the great arteries and cut into the 5th and 6th vertebrae by an eighth of an inch. The doctors discuss throat cutting, saying the lowness of the cut favours severing the arteries and that if both arteries were cut there would not be much spurting. It seems that Warrington was acquitted on the strength of his good character and the bad character of his wife. She had previously self-harmed and threatened to cut her head off so the verdict went his way.

Mary Kelly's 5th and 6th vertebrae had also been cut into. The 'Dear Boss' letter is the origin of the name 'Jack The Ripper' and contains the line, 'my knife's so nice and sharp'. Liz Jackson's head was removed at the 6th cervical vertebra.

In June 1888  George Henry Ellison, a solicitor, shot himself in the head, at his home in Westminster. Dr. Thomas Langston performed the post-mortem with Bond and found eleven self-inflicted punctures, some of which went down to the bone, over the left breast 'of the sort that a lancet might make'. A wound about 4 to 5 inches deep had penetrated the heart and required something longer such as a pair of scissors. This would have proved fatal had he not shot himself. There were also 6 non-serious punctures to the throat. A bloody lancet wrapped in paper was found in his waistcoat pocket. It's a strange choice of weapon and it's curious that a suicidal man with a loaded gun would stab himself 18 times and that there is no positive identification of the weapon used to cause the heart wound. It appears he was attempting to hide the scalpel and succeeded in hiding the 'scissors'. Suicidal people can do some very illogical things so it may just be an expression of his torment. It is stated that the wounds were inflicted in life and were self-caused but there must be an element of doubt. Martha Tabram died on 7th August 1888 from wounds caused by two types of knife. The second one was used solely for a stab to the heart.

The Richmond Murder 2nd March 1879

After Julia Thomas was murdered by Kate Webster, her remains were found at Barnes Bridge, 3.5 miles west of Putney Bridge. The pieces were put together and Bond painted a sketch of what was left of Mrs. Thomas.

Inspector Edward Shaw delivered a carpet bag to Bond (which he kept at home) containing a chopper, a lantern, a tin box, some buttons, some of the victims clothes and some charred bones. The hand bones were in the tin box. The head was found 131 years later, during renovation work to David Attenborough's house. Kate Eddowes's possessions included tin boxes and buttons, could they have once belonged to Mrs. Thomas and been left at the murder scene by Bond ? There has been speculation about the use of a chopper on Mary Kelly.

Fake Doctors

Sometimes pornographers would claim to be connected to the Lock Hospital. In one case police raided a house and found evidence of subscriptions from 'men and women from every strata of society'.

There was a case in 1872 in which a Mr. Hamilton was summoned for using the title of 'Doctor', implying that he was registered under the medical act. It was the second time he had appeared in court, having been summoned by a Mr. Chandler, a Fellow of the Royal College Of Surgeons, who called himself a doctor though not entitled to do so, and was therefore summoned in turn by Mr. Hamilton. Chandler also applied for a summons against Hamilton for libel in a letter he'd written to the secretary of the Lock Hospital. Chandler lived in Berners Street, Soho. Could this case have influenced the author of the 'Dear Boss' letter to kill in Berner Street, Whitechapel ? 

William Yelverton Davenport was in trouble with the police a number of times, for violence, threats to kill and an attempt to marry bigamously which led to him being jailed for a year for perjury. In 1886 he was living at 72 Vincent Square, Westminster, when he appeared in court in connection with the death of George Wadley on Saturday 2nd October.

Wadley had gone to Davenport (who claimed he was registered as a medical student and appeared to have claimed the dispensary where he worked was owned by him) for treatment. Davenport claimed he was approved by the Royal College Of Surgeons but declined to say where his diplomas were.

Bond regarded Davenport's treatment of Wadley appropriate but wasn't impressed with his employer, who had filled in the death certificate without seeing Wadley before he died.

The case was in the papers over the next few days. A 'Ripper' letter dated 4th October 1888 was found outside 6 Vincent Square, with Berner Street mispelt as Berners Street. (see above)

The former Billingsgate Fish Market

Psychopathy

It's reckoned about 50% of the prison population has Anti-social Personality Disorder (APD) which typically presents as 'bad behaviour', such as theft, fighting, irresponsibility, substance abuse, that sort of thing. Psychopathy is similar but different with planned, deliberate, more focused violence as a common trait.

A typical profile of 'Jack' would probably suggest someone who committed criminal acts from a young age and was getting into trouble with the law in his teens. He would have likely struggled to maintain or establish close personal relationships and may have had substance abuse issues and pursued casual, emotionless sex with multiple partners. He would have been sadistic towards animals.

Psychopaths get bored easily and tend to be thrill-seekers which can lead them into arson, burglary, sexual assault and violence. A number of serial-killers I'm aware of have had an oddly sexualized relationship with their mothers. 

It's been suggested that Ed Gein's mother used him sexually, Gary Ridgway admits to perving on his mum, Levi Bellfield slept in his mum's bed in his teens.

Travelling is often a thing with serial killers, long haul truckers, drifters etc.

Does any of this apply to Bond? If so it's not obvious, he's a pillar of society, a success.

Seeking out battlefield surgery, risking his life to deliver a message, staghunting might indicate thrill-seeking behaviour. Spending years with his head between the thighs of 'fallen women' might be construed as sexually deviant. There is some evidence of impulsivity and anger in a road rage incident, he tries to help a friend beat a drink driving charge.

So on the surface, Bond doesn't match what is known about psychopaths, he's not obviously antisocial, most serial-killers have a criminal record . It's unlikely he's 'Jack' but it's not impossible. He may have created a second life or his police connections may have taught him how to conceal his misdemeanours, keeping them out of the public domain. He may have been extraordinarily cunning and devious.